France



Paris
66 206 930 (2014)
643 801 km2
248 573 mi2
4 807 m
15 771 ft
Mont Blanc

France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-8, the G-20, the EU and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.
  • Metropolitan France
    generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean
  • occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral.
    French Guiana
    tropical
  • hot, humid
  • little seasonal temperature variation
    Guadeloupe and Martinique
    subtropical tempered by trade winds
  • moderately high humidity
  • rainy season (June to October)
  • vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average
    Mayotte
    tropical
  • marine
  • hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May)
  • dry season is cooler (May to November)
    Reunion
    tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation
  • cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)

Europe
Western Europe


  • largest West European nation

  • Metropolitan France
    mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west
  • remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
    French Guiana
    low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
    Guadeloupe and Martinique
    Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains
  • Grande-Terre is low limestone formation
  • most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin. Martinique - mountainous with indented coastline
  • dormant volcano.
    Mayotte
    generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks
    Reunion
    mostly rugged and mountainous
  • fertile lowlands along coast

Mont Blanc
4 807 m
15 771 ft
Rhone River delta
-2 m
-7 ft
Mont Blanc Mount Everest
  • Metropolitan France
    coal
  • iron ore
  • bauxite
  • zinc
  • uranium
  • antimony
  • arsenic
  • potash
  • feldspar
  • fluorspar
  • gypsum
  • timber
  • arable land
  • fish
    French Guiana
    gold deposits
  • petroleum
  • kaolin
  • niobium
  • tantalum
  • clay
Metropolitan France
flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean
Overseas departments
hurricanes (cyclones); flooding; volcanic activity (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion)
  • some forest damage from acid rain
  • air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions
  • water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff

643 801 km2
248 573 mi2
640 427 km2
247 270 mi2
3 374 km2
1 303 mi2
2.13 % 1.44 % 6.32 % 2.61 % 3.61 % 8.37 % 4.6 % 0.13 %
0 km
0 mi
Brazil 649 km/403 mi
Suriname 556 km/345 mi

0 km/0 mi

30.60 %

33.40 %

52.50 %
  • wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes
  • beef, dairy products
  • fish
  • machinery
  • chemicals
  • automobiles
  • metallurgy
  • aircraft
  • electronics; textiles
  • food processing; tourism

66 206 930

+0.43%

51.3 %

48.7 %
0-14

18.5 %
15-64

62.8 %
65+

18.7 %

102.84 / km2
266.35 / mi2

79.29%
52 494 813

21%
13 712 117

78.70 yrs

85.40 Années

82.14 Années
5.96 % 1.5 % 8.92 % 12.52 % 17.09 % 175.55 % 0.89 %
  • French (official) 100%
  • Rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal
  • Breton
  • Alsatian
  • Corsican
  • Catalan
  • Basque
  • Flemish)
  • Christian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%
  • Muslim 7-9%
  • Jewish .5-.75%
  • Buddhist .5-.75%
  • Other .5-1.0%
  • None 23-28%
  • Celtic and Latin with Teutonic
  • Slavic
  • North African
  • Indochinese
  • Basque minorities


France


France

France

Francia

Francia

フランス
Republic



Bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (348 seats - 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinque, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed for departments with 1-3 members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats - 556 for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)

Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the "Le drapeau tricolore" (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the "ancient French color" of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas
"La Marseillaise"
(The Song of Marseille)
Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne (female personification)
National colors: blue, white, red
President Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012)
  • no official date of independence: 486
    (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship)
    10 August 843
    (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire)
    14 July 1789
    (French monarchy overthrown)
    22 September 1792
    (First French Republic founded)
    4 October 1958
    (Fifth French Republic established)

  • Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Paris
48 52 N, 2 20 E
UTC+1

PARIS 10.843 million
Lyon 1.609 million
Marseille-Aix-en-Provence 1.605 million
Lille 1.027 million
Nice-Cannes 967,000
Toulouse 938,000

27 regions (regions, singular - region)
Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie (Lower Normandy), Bourgogne (Burgundy), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse (Corsica), Franche-Comte, Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy), Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Martinique, Mayotte, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion, Rhone-Alpes
464 (2013)
Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,
6.4
beds/1,000 population (2011)
3.19
physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members)
18 years of age
universal

Army (Armee de Terre; includes Marines, Foreign Legion, Army Light Aviation), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air Force (Armee de l'Air (AdlA); includes Air Defense) (2011)




2 571 970 459 926.4
$USD
38 847.5
$USD
+0.18
%
machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
  • Germany 19.9%
  • Belgium 11.4%
  • Italy 7.8%
  • Netherlands 7.7%
  • Spain 6.7%
  • China 5%
  • UK 4.4%
machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
  • Germany 16.9%
  • Belgium 7.5%
  • Italy 7.4%
  • Spain 7.3%
  • UK 7.2%
  • US 5.8%
  • Netherlands 4.1%
euros (EUR) per US dollar
0.7489 (2014 est.)

0.6% (2014 est.)
1 028 446 km
639 047 mi
29 640 km
18 417 mi
59 per 100 people
country code - 33
numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US
100.36 / 100
83.75 / 100
metropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re
  • a mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations
  • state-owned France Televisions operates 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and international channels
  • a large number of privately owned regional and local TV stations
  • multi-channel satellite and cable services provide a large number of channels
  • public broadcaster Radio France operates 7 national networks, a series of regional networks, and operates services for overseas territories and foreign audiences
  • Radio France Internationale (RFI), under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a leading international broadcaster
  • a large number of commercial FM stations, with many of them consolidating into commercial networks (2008)
AM 41
FM about 3,500 (this figure is an approximation and includes many repeaters)
shortwave 2 (1998)
338 805.13 kt
5.19
kt par habitant
14.02
μg/m3
38 667.90
kt CO2 equivalent
83 753.20
kt CO2 equivalent
8
41
52
1 431
100 %
100 %
3 827
kg of oil equivalent per capita
48 %
47 %

Source de données: worldbank.com, wikipedia.org, infoplease.com, CIA World Factbook


Langue



Icônes


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éclipse solaire

éclipse de lune

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